4 May 2018: New GF databases are added into our suite for 13 models from the literature (both 1 s and 5 s).

27 July 2017: Non functional GF databases are now active.

29 July 2017: Two GF databases with reliable period of 5 s. are added into our suite. Check out the main page for URLs.

If you use our web services, please cite the study below:

Ceylan, S., M. van Driel, F. Euchner, A. Khan, J. F. Clinton, L. Krischer, M. Boese, S. Staehler, and D. Giardini (2017). From initial models of seismicity, structure and noise to synthetic seismograms for Mars, Space Science Reviews, InSight Special Issue, doi:10.1007/s11214-017-0380-6.

You might also consider citing the ObsPy, AxiSEM, and Instaseis papers:

Krischer, L., T. Megies, R. Barsch, M. Beyreuther, T. Lecocq, C. Caudron, and J. Wassermann, 2015. ObsPy: a bridge for seismology into the scientific Python ecosystem, Computational Science & Discovery, 8(1), 014003, doi: 10.1088/1749-4699/8/1/014003.
Nissen-Meyer, T., van Driel, M., Stähler, S. C., Hosseini, K., Hempel, S., Auer, L., Colombi, A., and Fournier, A., 2014. AxiSEM: broadband 3-D seismic wavefields in axisymmetric media, Solid Earth, 5, 425-445, doi:10.5194/se-5-425-2014.
van Driel, M., Krischer, L., Stähler, S. C., Hosseini, K., and Nissen-Meyer, T., 2015. Instaseis: instant global seismograms based on a broadband waveform database, Solid Earth, 6, 701-717, http://dx.doi.org/10.5194/se-6-701-2015.

Other studies we use:

Bertka, C. M., Fei, Y., 1997. Mineralogy of the Martian interior up to core-mantle boundary pressures. J. Geophys. Res. 102, 5251–5264.
Khan et al., 2016. Single station and single-event marsquake location and inversion for structure using synthetic Martian waveforms, in press, Phys. Earth Planet. Int.
Sanloup, C., A. Jambon, and P. Gillet, 1999. A simple chondritic model of Mars, Phys. Earth Planet. Int., 112, 43.
Taylor, G. J., 2013. The bulk composition of Mars. Chemie der Erde / Geochemistry 73, 401–420.

Blind test Green's functions databases:

These are the candidate models that were included in the recent 2018 MQS blind test. More details about these models and the MQS blind test can be found in Clinton et al.(2017). Each database is created for minimum reliable periods of 1 s. and 5 s. The suffix 'b' at the end of the some model names stands for bedrock. If you are interested in other resources regarding the models or MQS blind test, please visit this web page (Note that the page is not regularly maintained any more).

Database name
Min. period (s)
Record length(min.)
Model data
Complete URL for database Current status
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/LFAK_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/LFAK_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/MAAK_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/MAAK_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/SANAK_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/SANAK_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/TAYAK_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/TAYAK_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/DWAK_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/DWAK_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/DWThot_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/DWThot_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/DWThotCrust1_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/DWThotCrust1_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/DWThotCrust1b_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/DWThotCrust1b_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/DWThotCrust2_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/DWThotCrust2_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/DWThotCrust2b_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/DWThotCrust2b_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/EH45Tcold_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/EH45Tcold_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/EH45TcoldCrust1_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/EH45TcoldCrust1_5s/ Active
~30 axisemnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_1s/EH45TcoldCrust1b_1s/ Active
~300 http://instaseis.ethz.ch/blindtest_5s/EH45TcoldCrust1b_5s/ Active

Summary of the Green's functions databases from Ceylan et al. (2017):

Abbreviations used for mantle geotherm and composition columns are T13: Taylor (2013), SL99: Sanloup et al (1999), BF97: Bertka and Fei (1997), and AK: Khan et al. (2016). Model data are provided in png, nd or deck formats. The columns in the nd files are depth(km), Vp(km/s), Vs(km/s), density(g/cm^3), Qmu and Qkappa. The deck format includes radius(m), density(kg/m^3), Vp(m/s), Vs(m/s), Qkappa, Qmu, V1(m/s), V2(m/s), and iso/aniso columns in order. V1 and V2 are other velocities which we do not use; therefore, we duplicate the values of Vp and Vs.

Crustal thickness (km)
Crustal Vp(km/s)
Mantle geotherm
Mantle mineralogy
Min. period (s)
Record length(min.)
Database name
Model data
Complete URL for database Current status
4.95 (high)
BF97 T13 1 ~30 C30VH-BFT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VH-BFT13-1s Active
30 4.95 (high) BF97 SL99 1 ~30 C30VH-BFSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VH-BFSNL-1s Active
30 4.95 (high)
AK T13 1 ~30 C30VH-AKT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VH-AKT13-1s Active
30 4.95 (high) AK SL99 1 ~30 C30VH-AKSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VH-AKSNL-1s Active
30 3.60 (low) BF97 T13 1 ~30 C30VL-BFT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VL-BFT13-1s Active
30 3.60 (low) BF97 SL99 1 ~30 C30VL-BFSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VL-BFSNL-1s Active
30 3.60 (low)
AK T13 1 ~30 C30VL-AKT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VL-AKT13-1s Active
30 3.60 (low)
AK SL99 1 ~30 C30VL-AKSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VL-AKSNL-1s Active
80 4.95 (high) BF97 T13 1 ~30 C80VH-BFT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VH-BFT13-1s Active
80 4.95 (high) BF97 SL99 1 ~30 C80VH-BFSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VH-BFSNL-1s Active
80 4.95 (high) AK T13
1 ~30 C80VH-AKT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VH-AKT13-1s Active
80 4.95 (high) AK SL99 1 ~30 C80VH-AKSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VH-AKSNL-1s Active
80 3.60 (low) BF97 T13 1 ~30 C80VL-BFT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VL-BFT13-1s Active
80 3.60 (low) BF97 SL99 1 ~30 C80VL-BFSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VL-BFSNL-1s Active
80 3.60 (low) AK T13 1 ~30 C80VL-AKT13-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VL-AKT13-1s Active
80 3.60 (low) AK SL99 1 ~30 C80VL-AKSNL-1s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C80VL-AKSNL-1s Active
-- -- AK DW 5 ~300 ModelDW-BFGeoth_5s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/ModelDW-BFGeoth_5s Active
-- -- AK DW 5 ~300 ModelDW-AKGeoth_5s pngnd or deck http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/ModelDW-AKGeoth_5s Active

Use your own Python scripts [example code]:

We recommend developing your own Python scripts for generating synthetics. If you choose to use your own scripts, simply import Instaseis and connect to one of our databases remotely. Note that our Instaseis servers compute the waveforms in displacement units by default. Most of the default parameters can be overridden in your scripts according to your needs. Consult to Instaseis webpage for more info.

			>>> import obspy
			>>> import instaseis
			>>> db = instaseis.open_db("http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VH-BFT13-1s")
			>>> print(db)
			RemoteInstaseisDB reciprocal Green's function Database (v7) generated with these parameters:
				components           : vertical and horizontal
				velocity model       : external
				attenuation          : True
				dominant period      : 1.000 s
				dump type            : displ_only
				excitation type      : dipole
				time step            : 0.230 s
				sampling rate        : 4.346 Hz
				number of samples    : 7823
				seismogram length    : 1799.9 s
				source time function : gauss_0
				source shift         : 1.611 s
				spatial order        : 4
				min/max radius       : 3289.0 - 3389.5 km
				Planet radius        : 3389.5 km
				min/max distance     : 0.0 - 180.0 deg
				time stepping scheme : symplec4
				compiler/user        : gfortran 4.9.2 20141030 (Cray Inc.) by vamartin on dora22
				directory/url        : http://instaseis.ethz.ch/marssynthetics/C30VH-BFT13-1s
				size of netCDF files : 564.9 GB
				generated by AxiSEM version v1.2-11-g8461-dirty at 2016-03-11T12:50:33.000000Z 

Define a source/receiver pair using the moment tensor solution and location parameters. Use a whole ObsPy.Catalog for this purpose in a loop as you wish.

			>>> receiver = instaseis.Receiver(
			                 latitude=4.5, longitude=136.0, network="7J", station="SYNT1")

			>>> source = instaseis.Source(
			                 latitude=30.0, longitude=30.0, depth_in_m=50000,
			                 origin_time=obspy.UTCDateTime(2020, 1, 2, 0, 0, 0))

Retrieve the waveforms.

			>>> seismogram = db.get_seismograms(source=source, receiver=receiver)

Do some more processing as needed...

			>>> print(seismogram)
			>>> seismogram.plot()

Use REST-like API of Instaseis:

Instaseis currently supports nine back-end commands. Check http://www.instaseis.net/routes/seismograms_raw.html and http://www.instaseis.net/routes/seismograms.html webpages for a list of parameters needed to compute waveforms. You can use these commands within your Python scripts, or use wget to download the data.

Use Instaseis GUI:

You also have the option to view synthetics for any source type using the Instaseis GUI. This tool is useful especially for exploring the waveforms before generating a set of them. To start the GUI, simply type the command below in your command screen.

			> python -m instaseis.gui